### IS 11639-3 (1996): Structural design of penstocks ...

2018-11-15u2002·u2002length of reducer pipe may be calculated by the formula: where L= $= D, andD, = L= D, -D* 2tang Length of reducer pipe in mm, Angle of convergence in degrees, and Diameter at the entry and exit respectively in mm. 4.3 The thickness of the reducer apiece may be determined using the following formula: PD t= where

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